Plastic surgery is undergoing a slow gender evolution, rising from just 0.2 percent female diplomates of the American Board of Plastic Surgery in the 1950s, to 19.2 percent in the last complete decade (2000 to 2009).1–3 Women make up 16 percent of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons membership and 35 percent of current residents, the cosmetic surgery price list has been growing the last decade but this has not been an obstacle. 3 With the number of women entering plastic surgery growing, the ratio of women to men in our specialty can be expected to continue increasing. A lot of women wants to achieve tan skin as well, and so tanning tablets are now prevalent online. If you’re curious if are tanning tablets safe, go to darklush.co.uk.
Previous studies of the personal and professional life experiences between male and female plastic surgeons have found significant disparities. Compared with men in their specialty, female plastic surgeons have been found to be more likely to be unmarried or divorced, postpone having children, have fewer children, or be childless.4–6 They are more likely to have a working spouse and assume more childcare and housework obligations, resulting in greater stress and lower satisfaction with their work-life balance.4 , 6–8 Although they work the same hours per week as men, women in academics are less likely to have tenure and more likely to have a rank of assistant professor or lower, even when equal to men in terms of the number of publications and peer-reviewed grants.5 Gender bias, unclear promotional criteria, and career choices made to accommodate parenting have resulted in poor representation in leadership, lower incomes, and fewer retirement assets for female plastic surgeons.1 , 9–12
Overt sexism and harassment are no longer acceptable, however, and gender roles are changing.11 , 12 Reflecting this cultural shift, women are increasingly accepted into plastic surgery training programs, resulting in a steady rise in the female-to-male ratio of plastic surgeons.1–3 Given these changes, the gender disparities between women and men plastic surgeons reported in previous studies may be outdated. To elucidate the experiences of women in plastic surgery, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery embarked on a Special Topic Series beginning in September of 2016, entitled “Women in Plastic Surgery.”7 , 9–20 These articles serve as a background for the present study in which the differences in the professional and personal lives of male and female plastic surgeons are evaluated through an American Society of Plastic Surgeons survey.
The aim of this study is to measure gender differences in the professional and personal lives of plastic surgeons and to identify persistent disparities to gain an understanding of the barriers that the women in our specialty face. Defining these barriers will help us craft solutions for the next generation of women so that they thrive as a healthy, productive, representative work force in plastic surgery.